Off-Road Discovery


Series: Off-Road Driver Training

Off-Road Discovery has partnered with Paul Sinkinson at Xplorability and we are excited to share a series for learning the fundamentals of 4WD off-roading. All of the materials of Off-Road Driver Training were created by Paul Sinkinson, a 4wd Defensive Driver Training Consultant/Trainer and Programme Developer.

Originally this 4WD guide was written for and formed part of the Xplorability RoadSafe and TerrainSafe professional training programme designed for companies and contractors operating in mixed terrain conditions around the world to improve the knowledge of their driving teams, accident prevention and a reduction in vehicle wear and tear.

Paul has been involved with 4wd Transport for over 50 years and a Professional 4wd Training Consultant/Trainer for the past 20 years. This information is for both “Newbies” to 4wd Adventure and the old hands. Off-Road Discovery is very excited to partner with Paul in this series and share his knowledge and experience with the 4WD community.

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Training Modules:

VEHICLE BASICS: Geometric Limitations of Vehicle

SAFETY: Hazard, Identification, Safety Environment

ABS/TC/HDC: Land Rover Discovery 2 Automatic and Manual Guidelines

ASCENTS: Ascending Hills and Slopes

DESCENTS: Descending Hills and Slopes

MUD and RUTTS: Uphill and Down Dale

GRAVEL: Gravel and Country Roads

ROLLOVERS: On-Road Rollovers

ROLLOVERS: Off-Road Rollovers

SAND: How to Drive on Sand Without Getting Stuck

SNOW: Guidelines to Driving on Snow and Ice

DITCH CROSSING: How to Cross a Ditch With or Without Air Suspension

ROUGH AND ROCKY: Rough and Rocky Terrain

WATER: 4x4 a Water Crossing

RECOVERY: High Jack Lift, Airbag, Snatch

WINCH RECOVERY

4WD WITH MOBILITY CHALLENGES

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On-Road Rollovers

Reduce the Likelihood of a Vehicle Rollover

What is the cause of on-road rollovers?

Remember what Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion states: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction

When driving, whether it be On-Road or Off-Road, if the vehicle tilts at an angle from a maneuver such as losing a wheel off the edge of the road or into a rut, ditch or even just a variance in the terrain the driver will usually immediately react to this. Here are tips on what you can do to reduce the likelihood of a rollover. [Off-road rollover tips(/off-road-rollovers) are in the next article.

This content was developed by and owned by Paul Sinkinson, Xplorability owner. Paul is a 4wd Defensive Driver Training Consultant/Trainer and Programme Developer. Avoid On-Road Rollovers

4x4 overland

Tips for reducing the likelihood of a vehicle rollover ...


Gravel and Country Roads Driver Training Techniques

Defensive Driving on Gravel

In many Countries rural areas are a large part of the road network and consists of low surface grade or gravel roads. The reason for this is that tarred roads are expensive to build, and are not particularly necessary if they don’t carry a lot of traffic. Gravel roads are inexpensive and easy to maintain. The only drawback is that people who use them have to drive slower and need to use a slightly different set of driving skills.

Most vehicles operators and handbooks explain how to drive on gravel roads. Unfortunately, many drivers don’t bother to listen or read the information available, and so every year a number of people cease being travelers and become statistics.

This content was developed by and owned by Paul Sinkinson, Xplorability owner. Paul is a 4wd Defensive Driver Training Consultant/Trainer and Programme Developer.

Gravel Road

4x4 overland

Tips on how to manage gravel roads ...


Uphill and Down Dale

4x4 Through Mud and Ruts

Normally at this time of the year I would not wander about on muddy tracks, as I prefer to follow the “Tread Lightly” Policy. Fortunately around my local forest there are numerous sustainable routes. However, with this topic in mind, today I made an exception and so I checked out a normally solid track that I know does rut up when the forestry vehicles use it for access. I wasn’t disappointed!

This content was developed by and owned by Paul Sinkinson, Xplorability owner. Paul is a 4wd Defensive Driver Training Consultant/Trainer and Programme Developer.

Land Rover Outing

4x4 overland

Tips for driving in mud and ruts, whoot whoot ...


Descending Hills and Slopes

4WD Tips and Tricks on Steep Terrain

Driving steep terrain is exciting but can also be dangerous, worst case you can roll and keep rolling.

This content was developed by and owned by Paul Sinkinson, Xplorability owner. Paul is a 4wd Defensive Driver Training Consultant/Trainer and Programme Developer.

Driving Steep Terrain - having fun & being safe

4x4 overland

Tips for driving down hills and slopes ...


Land Rover Discovery 2 Automatic & Manual Guidelines

Learn How to Best Use ABS, TC and HDC

Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) - Traction Control (TC) - Hill Descent Control (HDC)

The Land Rover Discovery 2 comes with ANTI-LOCK BRAKING SYSTEM (ABS), TRACTION CONTROL (TC) and HILL DESCENT CONTROL (HDC) as Standard.

This content was developed by and owned by Paul Sinkinson, Xplorability owner. Paul is a 4wd Defensive Driver Training Consultant/Trainer and Programme Developer.

Land Rover Discovery 2 ABS, TC and HDC Guidelines

4x4 land-rover overland

learn more about Discovery 2 ABS, TC and HDC...


Ascending Hills and Slopes While Off-Roading

Climbing Up in Your 4x4

Ascending Hills and Slopes

How do you drive up steep slopes successfully and safely? We’ve got you covered, check out how to ascend hills and slopes, we even tell you what to do if you fail at the climb, don’t have hill descent control, have an automatic or a manual.

This content was developed by and owned by Paul Sinkinson, Xplorability owner. Paul is a 4wd Defensive Driver Training Consultant/Trainer and Programme Developer.

Extreme Off-Roading This is Paul demonstrating the capability of a well prepared vehicle on a steep rocky ascent during an “ Extreme” 4wd Training Course - Please Note: we do NOT recommend you trying this without the appropriate training from a Professional Instructor!!

overland 4x4

Tips for ascending hills and slopes ...


Hazard Identification, Safety and Environment

Safety ... because not everything will 'just buff out'

Off-roading is fun, you wouldn’t be reading this if it wasn’t, but it can also be dangerous. Reminding yourself and the people you adventure with on the fundamentals of gear to have and guidelines to follow is always worth your time to help mitigate risks and accidents. Staying safe doesn’t take long!

This content was developed by and owned by Paul Sinkinson, Xplorability owner. Paul is a 4wd Defensive Driver Training Consultant/Trainer and Programme Developer.

4WD off-roading hazard identification and safety margin assessment

overland 4x4

guide to 4WD off-roading...


Geometric Limitations of Vehicle

Understand Your 4WD Vehicle Angles and Limitations

Before you start adventuring into any off-road situation you need to understand your vehicle’s “Geometric Limitations” – In reality this is just a fancy name for how and what the body shape, under body transmission and suspension parts will allow the vehicle to travel over on varied terrain while taking into account the laws of physics, dynamics and stability.

Without this knowledge there is likely to be the embarrassment of damage to the vehicle or the terrain as well as to the driver and any occupants. To keep things simple, these fundamentals are captioned photographs.

This content was developed by and owned by Paul Sinkinson, Xplorability owner. Paul is a 4wd Defensive Driver Training Consultant/Trainer and Programme Developer.

4x4 Geometric Limitations: Angle of Approach

overland 4x4

learn more about what are your vehicles geometric limitations...